Without a 'Right to Garden' Law, It May Be Illegal to Grow Your Own Food | Civil Eats

Without a ‘Right to Garden’ Law, It May Be Illegal to Grow Your Own Food

How one Illinois family's backyard hoop house put them at odds with city officials.

Nicole Virgil in her backyard garden.

The most delicious vegetables are the ones you grow yourself, as many have come to realize during the pandemic. But some cities and counties have restrictions that prevent people from gardening at home. In one Midwestern town, a temporary greenhouse has ended up on the wrong side of the law, revealing a value system that is distinctly regressive.

Nicole and Dan Virgil, who live in Elmhurst, a suburb of Chicago, are dedicated vegetable gardeners. By the summer of 2015, they had maxed out their 2,000-square-foot backyard with raised beds and were relying on them for much of their family’s produce. They had branched out from simply growing the typical salad ingredients to cultivating potatoes, fennel, leeks, and tomatillos. In late August, the plants were still going full-bore, and the Virgils wondered how they could extend the Midwestern growing season. (In this climate zone, seedlings go into the ground on Mother’s Day and peter out in October.)

“It seemed like such a shame that everything would come to a dead stop once the temperature dropped,” says Nicole, who is among an estimated one-third of all Americans who have grown food at home. “We really wanted to make a dent in our grocery bill and in our carbon footprint—we didn’t turn our whole backyard into a garden just to have a few token vegetables.”

After doing some online research, Dan built a “high-tunnel” hoop house to protect two of the larger garden beds. The temporary greenhouse, made of plastic sheeting over a frame of PVC pipe and plywood, was nine feet tall at its apex. It was big enough to produce sufficient heat to warm the soil and allow the Virgils to stand inside while gardening in frigid conditions. In more temperate climates like California’s, farmers use hoop houses to protect delicate blackberries and raspberries from dew and fog.

A few weeks after their hoop house went up, Nicole found a violation notice from the city taped to it. “I thought it had to be some kind of misunderstanding, that it couldn’t possibly be serious,” recalls Nicole. She had assumed that the hoop house, a lightweight temporary structure akin to a tent, wouldn’t be subject to city regulations.

After several discussions with city officials, 16 public meetings over two years, a lawsuit filed by the Virgils, and a subsequent appeal, the city remained unmoved, siding with the neighbor who had filed the original complaint. The Virgils found themselves stuck in a catch-22 of having an unpermitted temporary structure while having no way to get a permit for a temporary structure. Facing a daily fine, they took down their hoop house.

Inside the Virgil's hoop house.

Inside the Virgil’s hoop house.

Why would a backyard hoop house be so contentious? The Virgils are among many home gardeners around the country who have triggered a city or county ordinance that restricts edible gardening. It’s fairly common for local governments to have a broadly written landscape ordinance, which may not explicitly prohibit vegetable gardening but requires grass or similar vegetation and calls for plants within a certain height.

The neatly manicured yard has long been a status symbol; lawns first appeared in the 1700s on European estates, whose owners could afford to have high-maintenance living carpets. And the suburbs have historically differentiated themselves from “ag land.” “A lot of rural land was developed into suburban municipalities, and the zoning code was changed to prohibit agricultural uses—people didn’t want a pig farm to move in,” says Laura Calvert, the former executive director of Chicago-based nonprofit Advocates for Urban Agriculture.

We’ll bring the news to you.

Get the weekly Civil Eats newsletter, delivered to your inbox.

Given the context, it’s easy to see how the neighbors might look down on home gardening as a form of subsistence farming. “People think that it’s beneath them,” says Nicole, who documented her struggle in a recent op-ed for the Chicago Tribune.

The goal of these ordinances, whether they’re about landscaping or temporary structures, is to maintain property values. (The racist practice of redlining, which kept African Americans out of the suburbs, was rationalized in the same way.) However, the perception that growing vegetables will drive down home values is “not rooted in any evidence,” as Calvert points out.

Now the pandemic shutdown is shifting these cultural attitudes. For the first time in a long while, people have seen empty shelves in grocery stores and witnessed hoarding. The past months have been a visceral reminder of how important it is to have access to healthy food, which no doubt prompted many to start planting. Elmhurst’s neighbor, Chicago, is ahead of the curve; it embraced hoop houses in its 2011 ordinance promoting urban farming while still regulating them with restrictions on their size and height. “We have broad mayoral support for urban agriculture,” says Calvert. “It provides all these benefits, including food access, public health, and public education.”

The Virgil's hoop house in winter.

The Virgil’s hoop house in winter.

In addition to these imperatives, there are also philosophical and legal principles to defend. On a basic level, the right to garden year-round can be encapsulated as the right to do what you want in your own yard. The Virgils are advocating for a state Right to Garden bill, which would override local ordinances. They’ve joined forces with attorney Ari Bargil at the nonprofit Institute for Justice, which works on constitutional law cases and helped pass the first such gardening bill in Florida.

Bargil sees restrictions on home gardening as a violation of a fundamental right: “We have the right to use our own properties to grow our own food, as long as that use doesn’t impinge on someone else’s freedom to enjoy their property.” And he feels that landscape ordinances smack of authoritarianism. “If a vegetable garden is attracting pests, it has a bearing on the health and safety of a community, and that should be regulated,” he says. “But if the government is acting like Disney World and specifying what your front yard should look like, that’s not a vision of a free society.”

Thank you for being a loyal reader.

We rely on you. Become a member today to read unlimited stories.

The Right to Garden bill in Illinois has been through three rounds of revisions and should go before the state legislature in its next session, which begins in early 2021. The Virgils are cautiously optimistic that their cause will prevail. “I’m just trying to do something good,” Nicole says. “I want to help people live well and help each other and have food in abundance.”

This article was originally published by Sierra, and is reprinted with the permission of the author. Photos courtesy of Nicole Virgil.

Lydia Lee is a freelance writer in the San Francisco Bay Area, focused on architecture and design. She got her start writing about technology and was a reporter for The Industry Standard and Salon.com during the first dot-com boom. She’s been an editor at California Home+Design, The Architect’s Newspaper, and Remodelista. Read more >

Like the story?
Join the conversation.

  1. Carol
    I agree they should be able to garden in their back yard. Their neighbors are just troublemakers. Especially now that the food supply is so unstable
  2. You know why the governments don't want you to grow your own food because they would be losing annual income from shipment they receive to the grocery stores....need to go back to the backyard growing so government has no control over your food sources or start buying direct from the farmers instead of the grocery stores. As long as government has some way to control food they will continue to control the people
  3. Mechtelde
    I have dealt with this, too. I lived in a pretty neighborhood outside of Washington DC. I wanted a vegetable garden, but the only sun was in the front of the house. So I built several cute cedar 4 x 4 raised beds just outside my front door. When my plants were small, the garden was attractive. Neighbors stopped by to watch the progress. But when the tomatoes got high and spindly, and the beans, and the Jerusalem artichokes, it looked pretty bad. I got no complaints from the neighbors, but I knew what they were thinking. They are in the federal government and the military and have to be able to sell their houses quickly, so the last thing they need is a neighbor whose house looks like she doesn’t care about it. By law, we weren’t allowed to have privacy fences in our front yard, so I tore the whole garden out, sold the house and moved the wood beds to a new house in a new neighborhood where there was sun in the backyard and, because of some pine trees on the boundary, no one could see it. Keywords there are “no one could see it.“ Unless you’re in a neighborhood where everyone gardens in their backyard, a hoop house wrapped in plastic sheet should be hidden behind a privacy fence or trees. It’s neighborly not to leave your messy projects, even if they are “temporary,” out where everyone else has to see them. Would you like the guy next door who loves working on old cars to leave his junk vehicle out where you have to look at it? Being neighborly is not too difficult, and it makes other people feel good, so it’s a win-win. Consider it peace on earth in your own little piece of the earth.
    • Kathleen
      Please look at the last photo in winter...there is a 6 foot high privacy fence next to the 9 foot tall hoop house. The neighbors see only the top 2-3 feet. And there are usually regulations that fences cannot be higher than 6 feet!
  4. Janis Cortazzo
    This should b a universally accepted & endorsed by the gov’t option regardless of HOAs etc. had a friend visiting from Sweden (I lived in a row home in PAat the time); he could not believe that all my neighbors didn’t have veggies, nut trees & fruit trees & canes in every yard. I agreed with him. Told him there was a time our gov’t endorsed gardening & Victory Gardens... so very sad our own gov’t doesn’t stand up for this anymore. Shameful.
  5. Judy Shepard
    There should be no reason whatsoever people cannot grow their own food period. It helps out many different ways. And maybe if that neighbor were a better one they might have got to enjoy the bounties from them. So sad today's world is turning out the way it is. Then depending on election it could get worse. I'm growing my own don't care what anyone says.
  6. nick contorno
    The "New Normal" is NOT growing your own food. We traded freedom for security, you can't complain now. You have to depend on big daddy government for all your needs. Plus Bill Gates has lab grown food to sell you. Dr. Gates can't make his money, if you're growing your own food.
    • Tabea Rochka
  7. Lori Lathrom
    We live in an apartment, and though it is feasible to have a container garden on our patio, it is not allowed. We are allowed 2 pots. Period. I would love to have a refrigerator sized green house, but it is not allowed.
    My only other option is plants indoors with grow lights.
  8. I want to wish you all the best for your brave ❤️ heart to want the best
    for us All in being healthy by growing food! I hope you win in court! God bless your endeavors!! All things are possible with God. Never give up!
  9. The PermaCulture folks worked for edible landscaping since 1984 or earlier. I attended their First International Conference located south of Seattle in 1985. I was born and raised on farms, and have owned 3 of my own farms. I lived and worked on a farm in New Zealand in 1968-69. Without fresh produce, I would have starved as a child. As an adult, I was able to give away tens of thousands of pounds of produce to rescue centers that fed the homeless and to Senior Centers that fed the elderly.
  10. Tabea Rochka
    What a sad neighbor to complain about somebody growing food. Wait till the day he/she needs to grow food and won't be able to! Ridiculous!
  11. This is a deplorable violation of the Virgil’s constitutional rights. I pray to the GOD of heaven that HE will defend & justify the Virgil family so that there will be no restrictions to the clever, hoop house which will reap a bountiful crop, no doubt. May they win their day in court, & win big for all who love liberty. Twisted, corrupt govt officials who don’t understand justice need to be uprooted & weeded out of office at every level. Unjust laws need to be overturned. U.S. citizens have become enslaved to tyrannical, elitist politicians & their ruthless rulings & regulations. We are not a free ppl to steward our property— to be self-sufficient? In Hitler’s discourse on the propaganda of war, he stated, “A nation without honour will sooner or later lose its freedom & independence.” (Hitler, Adolph, Mein Kamf, Jairo Publishing House, New Delhi, 1988, p.168). Here we are. It’s a sad day in America when a disgruntled neighbor can wield an evil weapon via the courts just b/c he doesn’t like the neighbor’s garden.
  12. Gretchen Nicholson
    Go Virgils! My husband and I are totally behind you! Praying for minds to open and change!
  13. Jim
    It's funny (sad) how people will allow their governments to restrict freedoms they don't like, only to be surprised when the same government restricts their freedoms that someone else doesn't like.

    Great job illinois! You seem to be right behind California and NY in controlling people's lives.
  14. Jennifer Johnson
    During World War I, a severe food crisis emerged in Europe as agricultural workers were recruited into military service and farms were transformed into battlefields. As a result, the burden of feeding millions of starving people fell to the United
    States. The people of the US grew gardens in every available space and in any pots they found so that they could help with the war effort. Soon, we entered the war, too. Any vacant spot including parks and vacant lots became Victory farms. 3 million plots were planted and harvested. That was in 1917. It would again begin to be a wide spread gardening effort in WWII. Just read up on Victory gardens at History.com. This is all there. It’s where I found the information. Times are rough right now, we need more and not less gardens to help feed our own people who are without. I’m so new to this that O can barely make enough for my family. Imagine if I needed to depend on my garden! The more we plant and the longer we do it, the more experience and able we become. No effort is lost to uselessness. Every time we kill a plant we learn! Every time we succeed our knowledge grows and that’s so valuable. We need to learn and teach our children and others. In another war we’d need these again. Would you be ready? Would you be able to contribute or would you be in court fighting against gardens in yards?
  15. Diane Luchterhand
    I don't have garden but, I am working on a pollinator 2 1/2 acres plot with hay when needed on the other 1 1/2 and had certain people complain and it is all in my back field...I have mostly wild flowers and nothing is eaten, sold or traded and it is all for wildlife and Pollinators and birds if some come around! Registered with National Wildlife and Pollinator farm garden.net and Madison Pollinator path ways and Monarch Watch & Monarch way side! I want to see a law for Gardeners planting Pollinators and wildlife prairies on open land that you may own and the law could be "The gardeners and their garden protection law " gives gardeners protection from by passers who want to threaten you or harass you or damage and cause harm t what you worked so hard for and protection for pollinator home gardens ( this will also help protect endangered wildlife at your home also!)and their owners and other gardeners also, when they are not going over the laws in neighborhoods!!Hunters have a new law ..We do the opposite by planting to help animals and Pollinators, so why couldn't we have the same law for protection as hunters do? It's all for conservation at the home, farm and on your own land!
  16. James Brady
    We need Urban Ag ordinances all over America as we have witness how food access was very limited during Covid. We must grow more Urban foods to balance the supply chain and commit to uplifting people that are beginning farmers in 2021. Connecting grower with buyers is key to successful Urban Farming with an APP. I love Aquaponics especially for urban Vegans who prefer plant and protein based diets. Throw in Moringa and we're profitable first year growing vertically. Part of your next meal should come from less than ten feet from the kitchen stove. Grow for what you know
  17. Cheryl Lofton
    This happened to a lady right here in DC. She was growing herbs to treat her cancer since she could not afford medical care. The neighborhood gentrified and her new neighbors called the city and had them come in and tear down all of her herbs because it was offensive to their nosey eyeballs. Some took years and years to grow. The neighborhood was very upset with these busybodies and picketed outside their home for days. They claimed they didn't know it was herbs and offered to replant. Folks need to mind their own yards and not everybody else.
  18. George
    It is legal, encouraged and on occasion funded in America's 5th largest city, Phoenix Arizona. Here is one of several such funded programs: https://www.phoenix.gov/oep/backyard-garden
  19. Darius Davenport
    There are so many laws that stop us from doing what we know is right under the pretense of protecting what someone else feels is the correct way to exist. Too often those people who are making these almost frivolous complaints are using the government and its methods to infringe upon the rights of others and that needs to stop. If I was their neighbor I'd be trying to figure out if I could get some of those good fresh foods they're growing, seeing as I know it's real food! Unlike the stuff available in these stores which I often have to question.

More from



hickens gather around a feeder at a farm on August 9, 2014 in Osage, Iowa. Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images

What Happened to Antibiotic-Free Chicken?

With the biggest poultry company in the country backtracking and other commitments to raising healthier birds unmet, the future is rockier than it once seemed.


Nik Sharma Offers His Top Tips for Home Cooks to Fight Recipe Fatigue

Nik Sharma baking at left, and tossing a chickpea dish at right. (Photo credit: Nik Sharma)

Far From Home, the Curry Leaf Tree Thrives

Zee Lilani of Kula Nursery stands among her curry leaf tree starts in Oakland, California. (Photo credit: Melati Citrawireja)

A Guide to Climate-Conscious Grocery Shopping

Changing How We Farm Might Protect Wild Mammals—and Fight Climate Change

A red fox in a Connecticut farm field. (Photo credit: Robert Winkler, Getty Images)