Meet the ‘Fanatic’ Breeding Colored Cotton, Growing Heirloom Wheat, and Building Soil Carbon | Civil Eats

Meet the ‘Fanatic’ Breeding Colored Cotton, Growing Heirloom Wheat, and Building Soil Carbon

Sally Fox is a cotton pioneer, having spent most of her life studying and growing naturally colored cotton, while also raising sheep and evangelizing the benefits of heirloom wheat.

Sally Fox. Photo © Paige Green

For the last 20 years, Sally Fox has operated a 160-acre biodynamic farm in the Capay Valley of Northern California. Just past the gate, dozens of heritage Merino sheep, freshly shorn, run along the fence. From inside her small house, there’s a view of the hills, still green from spring rains. In the living room sit a couple sacks of the Sonora wheat Fox grows, skeins of yarn spun from her the cotton she produces, and wooden file cabinets full of her research. Fox wears a loose dark blue shirt and tan pants—both made from cotton she bred.

Fox, endlessly curious and inventive, is something of a legend among cotton growers and organic farmers. Since she was a child, she has been committed to protecting the environment, refusing to use synthetic dyes that pollute the land, water, and human bodies. Her dedication to biodynamic farming is similarly absolute: Her Viriditas farm is home to a stunning number of innovative, sustainable practices. In addition to raising heritage sheep and growing heirloom wheat, she produces organic, non-GMO, naturally colored cotton that boasts rich, earthy tones.

Brown cotton growing at Viriditas Farm. (Photo © Sally Fox)

Brown cotton growing at Viriditas Farm. (Photo © Sally Fox)

Fox spent years experimenting with breeding cotton in the early 1980s, until she developed a variety that could be commercially spun and picked by machine. Today, she continues to research greater color ranges and further ways to make colored cotton easier to spin, while also seeking out ecological methods to expand plant color and designing yarns for specific industries.

Fox plants about 70 acres of cotton “wherever it makes sense, in terms of irrigation equipment and crop rotations.” She does the same with the wheat, rotating the two crops and letting the sheep graze on the remaining 100 acres or so of land.

The sheep were an unplanned addition to the farm, but after 20 years, she says, “I’m totally attached to them! And they have built the soil carbon up hugely.”

That underscores another of Fox’s passions: Everything she does on the farm is in service of sequestering carbon, building up the organic matter in her soil and preventing it from being released into the atmosphere. And it’s working, she learned last year after Stanford students came out to do elaborate soil tests at Viriditas.

“My test results corresponded with the historical records of the farm of 1 percent soil organic matter when I bought the place, and now it’s at 2.6 percent—that’s a big difference,” she said, referring to a collaboration between the Gaudin Lab at UC Davis and Fibershed’s Citizen Science initiative that measured the soil carbon on her farm. “Why is organic farming called organic farming? Because it’s all about increasing the soil organic matter! They don’t say ‘chemical-free.’ They don’t say ‘pesticide-free.’ They say organic.”

Building a Market for Colored Cotton

Fox, who grew up in the Bay Area, started spinning when she was just 11. In high school, she set up a business in a dog-grooming facility, spinning people’s dog hair into yarn that she used to knit socks, hats, or scarves—or whatever they wanted.

She wasn’t planning to attend college, but she had always been interested in the environment, and after reading Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring when she was 12, decided she wanted to work to eliminate toxic pesticides. One of her high school teachers convinced her to study entomology so she could do just that. So Fox went to the California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), where she studied biology, and then to the University of California at Davis, where she earned a graduate degree in entomology.

At Cal Poly, where Fox was teaching hand spinning classes, a conversation with one of her students set her on the course she’s followed ever since. The woman’s daughter had been a high school craft teacher and had lost most of her brain function from years-long exposure to commercial dyes. Fox, who describes herself as a bit of a fanatic, went to the library to look up who made most commercial dyes.

“It’s the same companies that make pesticides, the exact same ones,” she said. “The chemical dyes are highly toxic. I don’t believe they’re toxic when you’re wearing them necessarily, but they’re certainly toxic in the manufacturing. And that’s how it was that I became fixated. I would never spin or weave anything dyed, only natural colors.”

This discovery led Fox to a life-long pursuit to secure natural fibers, wherever they came from—whether it was dogs from the grooming station or musk-ox hair she used to gather from the San Francisco Zoo.

Years later, after getting her Masters of Science degree in Integrated Pest Management at U.C. Riverside, Fox worked for a man who bred tomatoes and cotton. She found some brown cotton seeds in a drawer while cleaning out the greenhouse one day, and in her excitement, she tried to convince him to improve the fiber, which she says was coarse and weak and not good for spinning. He told her there was no market for colored cotton.

“He was in his 70s, and I was my 20s, and I said, ‘Why don’t we make a market?’” Fox said. “He starts laughing, and he says, ‘Why don’t you make a market?’”

We’ll bring the news to you.

Get the weekly Civil Eats newsletter, delivered to your inbox.

And so, with her customary zeal, Fox spent years working on the colored cotton, trying to make it stronger, longer and higher-yielding, by breeding it with cotton that already had those qualities.

Green cotton growing at Viriditas Farm. (Photo © Sally Fox)

Green cotton growing at Viriditas Farm. (Photo © Sally Fox)

Though she worked as an entomologist, she spent all her weekends and vacations in the field, discovering a variety of green cotton along the way. When she had developed cotton strong enough to be machine-spun, she quit her entomology day job, and, with her siblings’ help, in the mid-1980s bought her first farm, in Southern California’s Kern County, where she stayed for eight years.

In 1993, white cotton growers’ fears of cross-pollination led San Joaquin County officials to outlaw colored cotton, so Fox moved on to Arizona, where the hot climate was better for growing the crop and where there were no restrictions on growing colored cotton.

The colors in Fox’s cotton got darker rather than fading with time, and some people were willing to pay a lot for beautiful colors that didn’t come from harmful dyes. Fox’s built a stable of customers, including Levi’s and L.L. Bean, she earned awards and recognition for her contributions to organic agriculture, and her business made millions of dollars—everything seemed great.

Until it didn’t. In the pursuit of profit margins, starting around 1996 U.S retailers began ditching their long-term U.S. suppliers in favor of cheaper sources in India and China. In the United States, mills closed, decimating the textile industry. Fox had grown cotton she couldn’t sell, and now the Arizona farmers, like the ones in Southern California, said they were worried about pollen from her cotton drifting over to their white cotton and tainting the color of their crop.

In response, Fox moved her farm in 1998 to its current location, Yolo County’s Capay Valley, northwest of Sacramento, an area where organic farms thrived and her ideas were welcomed.

A New Operation in California

Shortly after moving back to California, Fox began working with sheep. She needed the animals to get rid of starthistle—a noxious weed that displaces other vegetation—and she had dreams of producing a machine-washable mixture of cotton and wool.

She found a source to buy Merino sheep, intending to bring home six at $300 each. But when she drove her truck and trailer over to the farm, she found that the farm’s new management planned to slaughter any unsold sheep the next day. So she loaded 30 into her trailer and took them home. Three days later, those sheep were having lambs. Now, 20 years later, she maintains a flock of about 140 Merino sheep.

Some of Sally Fox's Merino sheep. (Photo © Sally Fox)

Some of Sally Fox’s Merino sheep. (Photo © Sally Fox)

The sheep have played a central role in Fox’s education about carbon farming. By managing the rotation of sheep and crops, she is learning how best to build up the soil and increase its organic matter. As with spinning and weaving, using naturally colored cotton, and taking on doomed sheep, she throws her whole self into it.

The same pattern holds true for the Sonora wheat she grows. Its long roots also help sequester carbon, she says, which is why she decided to plant it—but she also loved the taste. Fox learned about the heirloom wheat from Monica Spiller, a microbiologist and the founder of Whole Grain Connection in Mountain View, California, whom Fox admires for her fanaticism. Fox, who had never been a big fan of wheat, tasted the Sonora and loved it.

“I kind of became Sonora’s champion. I bought seeds from her and grew three acres, and then I grew 10 acres, and then I grew 27 acres,” she said. “I was becoming this evangelical Sonora wheat person and going around telling everyone they should grow it and how much better it was.”

Thank you for being a loyal reader.

We rely on you. Become a member today to read unlimited stories.

Modern wheat doesn’t have strong roots or stems because farmers use fertilizers to meet all its needs, Fox says, so it doesn’t build up its roots to seek out nutrients. In contrast, the heirloom Sonora wheat has long roots that add nitrogen to the soil, and since all the energy goes into the grain, rather than the stem, making it more flavorful.

For 10 years, Fox sold her wheat to Anson Mills, a national seller of heirloom grains. But after they told Fox they didn’t feel right taking her entire supply and she should try and sell it locally, she expanded her customer base to include the Davis Food Co-op, the San Francisco bakery Josey Baker Bread, several California farmers, and the restaurant at Napa Valley resort Meadowood.

Sally Fox with her sheep in the field. Photo © Paige Green

Sally Fox with her sheep in the field. Photo © Paige Green

Fox has been through it all—she has had to move farms, encountered hostility from other breeders, and built up a successful business to have crash down due to globalism. Now she is dealing with California’s recent weather patterns that have brought historic wetness and dryness to the farm. Her wheat got flooded, and she says she was lucky to have a crop at all. The wheat did fine in the drought due to its long roots, but she didn’t plant cotton at all, worried about her well going out. The recent historic fires in California have taken a toll as well, forcing Fox to evacuate her farm for a week.

What she wants to do, Fox says—and what she’s good at—is research and development. Fox hopes to create a nonprofit, so foundations can support her work. But that takes time, and she hasn’t found that time yet, what with shearing the sheep, grinding the wheat, walking the fields and irrigating—as well as driving back and forth to the apartment she keeps in Davis so her 16-year-old daughter can attend high school in the city.

“I’m doing way too much,” she said. “I should be training young people to do my work. This farm has been carefully tended, and I’ve improved it so much. My work should be supported. I don’t know quite yet how to get from here to where it should be, but it will happen.”

Top photo © Paige Green.

Emily Wilson is a freelance reporter in the San Francisco Bay Area. Read more >

Like the story?
Join the conversation.

  1. Stacia
    I’m wondering if you could partner with UCD?
    Veterinary Medicine
    Nutritional biology (my nephew was in the Graduate program years ago)
  2. marion westoll
    hi, I loved this article. I would love to volunteer on her farm or help . How do I contact her? I have always had an interest in farming and I am passionate about sustainability, animals, nutrition etc.
    kind regards, Marion Westoll
  3. Michelle pine
    Wow congratulations to you for all your beautiful hard work with dyes grains and saving the sheep . Give it time great story , rest and it will all happen in gods time !
  4. Mark
    It is a shame she had to move her farm because of the fear and ignorance of others. I applaud her "fanaticism" concerning sustainability. We need sooo many more like her to carry on.
  5. Ewa Marie Long
    This is a beautiful story of persistence, desire and passion. It’s incredibly inspiring to me as a new, next generation farmer beginning the research or opportunities and possibilities to improve the land. Sally’s farming history is filled with riches about crops, land and diversity. Thank you
  6. Charlie Faye Duggan
    Sally Fox, I greatly appreciate the work you have done with wheat, cotton, and carbon farming. Food is medicine and we have lost so much nutrition with the pesticides used in many crops. Please keep up your work. Maybe you should teach at a university. ~ Faye Duggan, San Diego, CA
  7. Bonnie
    I’m so thankful for people like you..teachers ..true hero’s for the environment and inspirations for us all. I hope my granddaughter Hannah visits you one day to learn and work.
    As for me, I’m still trying to spin the flax I grew in my relatively small garden ?. Good luck with everything!
  8. Gretchen Plantenberg
    I love what you are doing. I hope you continue to train and get this info to those who can continue. Thanks for sharing!
  9. DvilleMum
    The world needs more souls like you - keep up the good work!!
  10. Angie Lamb
    I'm so glad you've been a fanatic, we need more people like you. Color cotton is so cool, the natural is so beautiful, the wheat sounds fantastic, I'm going to look for it and make some bread!!! I'm praying for land to start my own " back to heirloom living".
  11. I bought some beautiful naturally dyed wool double knit fabric from her. We also spoke on the phone and she was enthusiastic and very helpful. I hope she can take her business where it needs to go because we need her in this world!!! I will surely pass the word around.
  12. susan armour seidman
    I'm looking for fabric to use for recovery of some chairs and finding it hard to find clean fabric without flame retardants, stain resistant finishes. Do you sell yardage?

    thank you
  13. What about a Patreon sponsorship or something like that where you can run a campaign that people can contribute to? Let the consumers support your efforts! I know I would!
  14. This land is after my own heart! love it and wish I wasn't on the other side of the continent!
    GOOD WORK ! :)Sharon
  15. Marilyn
    I'd love to know more and come to visit the farm!
  16. Elizabeth Stone
    Thank you for this truly interesting story about a marvelous lady and her quest for organic goodness. .. and I love the sheep!
    I would love to taste her heirloom wheat -- is it sold in Southern California?
    Best wishes,
    Elizabeth Stone
  17. Kelli Cochran
    Hello, I enjoyed reading about your colored cotton & wheat & sheep adventures. Quite a trip you have embarked upon. And kudos to you for your accomplishments & achievements.
    You want young people involved? Perhaps an unpaid internship for highly qualified college seniors. So get to work on that non-profit status. Other benefits will follow that. Not to mention some time for some self care which you really need.
  18. Kwankyun park
    This is what I dreamed about. I am wondering if I can visit this farm. Please send me the address. Thanks
  20. Alma merriman
    I've been spinning your colored cotton since I learned to spin in the mid 90's in Mendocino county. I've always loved it, but not always been able to afford it. Its amazing stuff.
    I raise colored Shetland myself. Used to have colored and white cheviots, but have only a white ram left. I'm amazed at how far you have come with all of this. Best wishes
    PS, if you get curious, as some have my woolywinds handspun yarns Facebook site was hacked by former neighbors and I have never been able to get it back. I haven't yet started a new page. Not for a while.
  21. Joan jacobowski
    Where can I buy colored cotton to spin and do you have any whole wheat organic flour from your wheat? I want to buy heirloom wheat flour but so much is ground into white flour. I can only eat whole wheat ?
  22. Susan
    I’m an individual consumer and interested in where I can buy products made with your cotton and wheat.
  23. Lourdes T.
    Where do we buy the colored cotton Sally produces?

More from




Senator Cory Booker Says FDA Proposal Could Worsen Antibiotic Resistance

A farmworker feeds cows in a barn.

Are Companies Using Carbon Markets to Sell More Pesticides?

a tractor sprays pesticides on a field while hazard symbols fade into the distance. (Civil Eats illustration)

In Brazil, a Powerful Law Protects Biodiversity and Blocks Corporate Piracy

An overhead shot of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. (Photo credit: FG Trade, Getty Images)

Bringing Back Local Milk, Ice Cream, and Cheese

Foggy Bottoms Boys co-owner Cody Nicholson-Stratton pictured with his son. (Photo courtesy of Foggy Bottoms Boys)