How Leaving Stores Closed for Years Helps Grocery Chains and Hurts Communities | Civil Eats

How Leaving Stores Closed for Years Helps Grocery Chains and Hurts Communities

Some supermarkets are using an arcane legal clause to prevent new stores from opening, creating a long-term lack of food access.

people leaving a supermarket

For thousands of residents in Bellingham, Washington, a quiet, coastal town between Seattle and the Canadian border, the Albertson’s supermarket was a lifeline. As the only full-service supermarket within the town’s Birchwood neighborhood, the store—the anchor business in the Park Manor shopping plaza—was accessible by foot for the many shoppers without cars and provided groceries at a lower price than the higher-end Haggen Food and Pharmacy more than a mile away.

Then, last year, the Albertson’s closed and a Safeway, a subsidiary of Albertson’s, opened three miles outside of town. Since then, the building that housed the Birchwood store has been sitting empty. Neighborhood residents must now make their way to a supermarket further afield—which, especially for low-income residents, may require taking a bus or spending more for their groceries at the higher-priced Haggen slightly closer to home.

A grocery store re-opening in Birchwood’s Park Manor strip mall likely would help some of the income- and transportation-challenged residents in a neighborhood that meets the federal government’s technical definition of a “food desert.” But Albertson’s, which still owns the 44,000-square-foot space, refuses to rent it to any tenant using more than 5,000 square feet to sell food.

Legal scholars say “restrictive covenants” like these are typically agreed to at the time of a building’s lease or sale and have been used for years to prevent landlords from selling or leasing space within the same shopping center or strip mall to a retailer’s direct competition. Courts have consistently backed such covenants, so long as the deed’s language is “clear and unambiguous” and restrictions are not “illegal or unconscionable.”

It’s an issue nationwide, as similar use restrictions are present in the leases or deeds of Safeway stores in California, Colorado, and Washington, D.C. At one point, 250 Walmart stores across the country sat empty because of such restrictions.

Critics say some retailers are using these covenants to keep competitors out of a space they’ve vacated for years, and sometimes decades—even when direct competition is not an issue. Now, a growing movement around the country seeks to end this “scorched-earth” use of restrictive covenants by grocery stores, noting that access to food is fundamentally important to the health and well-being of a neighborhood.

Veteran grocer Doug Rauch, a retired president of Trader Joe’s who started a chain of nonprofit grocery stores in Boston in 2015 to combat food insecurity, thinks such restrictive deeds and leases constitute a restriction of free competition in the marketplace when they extend beyond a single shopping center.

“These are unfair in my point of view in that they are clearly a restriction of free trade and often hurt the property-owner’s business—as well as reduce options for customers,” he said. “It keeps smaller, often more local or entrepreneurial businesses out of a market. I don’t think that’s good for the customer.”

Safeway spokesperson Christine Wilcox, who declined an interview and did not address any store location specifically, emailed Civil Eats the following statement: “While lease and deed restrictions are common across the retail sector,” she wrote, “for our company, which has more than 2,300 locations, such restrictions are rare.”

Birchwood resident Jesi Van Leeuwen, who volunteers with a group that calls itself the Birchwood Food Desert Fighters, said she heard from one man—an immigrant from Mexico—who’d moved into the neighborhood specifically because the Albertson’s was so close by. Now, the man, who uses a cane, walks to a bus stop, rides a bus to a supermarket further away, and occasionally must stay on the bus until it turns around at the end of the line so he and his bags can be dropped off in front of his house. “That’s not a sustainable way for people to live,” Van Leeuwen said.

Many experts have noted that supermarkets alone will not solve food-access problems in economically challenged neighborhoods. But even as communities engage in more sustainable solutions like gardening and making community supported agriculture (CSA) shares accessible and affordable, large-scale supermarkets remain a nutritional lifeline for many low-income shoppers and an economic anchor for smaller businesses nearby.

We’ll bring the news to you.

Get the weekly Civil Eats newsletter, delivered to your inbox.

Losing a grocery store can truly devastate a community. For instance, the 2014 closing of a Safeway in downtown Greeley, Colorado, left an estimated 33,000 residents without a convenient supermarket and led to the closure of a nearby liquor store that used to haul in $100,000 a month.

Local activists in Washington State—who’ve responded to the Albertson’s closure in Bellingham both with protests and by periodically giving away free produce at neighborhood “share spots”—say restrictive covenants pertaining to such a need as basic as food are especially harmful.

“It’s criminal,” said Van Leeuwen. “It’s saying, ‘You cannot feed these people.’”

In the other cities where Safeway is employing restrictive covenants, communities are pushing back as well, with responses ranging from direct action to legislation, and sometimes both.

District of Columbia officials are currently working to ban restrictive covenants there as Safeway attempts to sell its property in the Palisades neighborhood of Ward 7. The closure of this store—which remains open for now—said City Council member Mary Cheh, would disproportionately impact pedestrians who shop there because of the distance to the next nearest supermarket. While Cheh—a health and nutrition advocate who started D.C.’s first food policy council—represents a different part of the District, she said the Palisades case is a cautionary tale for other neighborhoods.

That’s why, last fall, Cheh proposed to make permanent an emergency act that curbs this practice in the District. Under the carefully worded act, which requires approval by the Council, D.C.’s mayor, and Congress to pass, property owners could ultimately choose to whom they lease or sell a space but could not specifically prohibit a user from opening a grocery or supermarket.

“[Supermarkets] are in business to make money and to succeed, and if they don’t want competition where they’ve just sold a store, I understand,” said Cheh, who has written several temporary Council bills banning restrictive deeds over the last few years. “I don’t think it’s good for the community, though. [Cities and residents] can’t always get what we want in the place we want it, but I think we can limit the harm of them selling it with this restrictive covenant.”

Sometimes City Hall isn’t willing to take a stand, or feels powerless to influence these corporate practices. Downtown Vallejo, California, was without a supermarket for 15 years as a former Safeway store sat empty and prospective buyers waited out a longstanding deed restriction—all legal and in plain sight of city officials. When the restriction finally ended in 2015, a Grocery Outlet moved into the space. But not before an entire generation of young people in the downtown neighborhood of the Northern California town had grown up with limited access to healthy food.

Thank you for being a loyal reader.

We rely on you. Become a member today to read unlimited stories.

Absent ample support from Vallejo officials, activists from the nearby Food Empowerment Project have targeted Safeway with a campaign in an attempt to force the company to stop using restrictive covenants. A year-long effort to communicate directly with Safeway leadership broke down in early 2016, when local activists “decided to be more in-your-face about things because they weren’t willing to make the changes,” said Lauren Ornelas, the organization’s executive director.

Ornelas’s organization has organized several protests at nearby Safeway stores, and more than 33,000 people nationwide have signed an online petition urging the company’s chief executive to stop writing restrictive deeds and leases. Vallejo residents are also asking for more worker-owned cooperatives in town in order to give food shoppers an alternative to large chains.

“Corporations are massive, and the communities they’re doing this to don’t have anywhere near the influence of Safeway,” said Ornelas. But, she adds, “Communities will exert their power, and that’s who Safeway’s going to have to answer to.”

Steve Holt is a Senior Editor and Writer at Boston University. His reporting has appeared in many publications including The Boston Globe, Boston Magazine, and Edible Boston. Follow him on Twitter @thebostonwriter. Read more >

Like the story?
Join the conversation.

  1. dan desalvo
    The core reason why grocers are leaving the area is because their economically marginal at best. Even if the restrictive covenants did not exist, the economic fact is most of the time, there isn't another grocery player to backfill the space. I'm not in favor of restrictive covenants with any retailer. However, the focus needs to be creating a number of solutions which include transportation to the nearest grocer, non profit food operations, aggressive governmental incentives, food vouchers, cooperatives, CSA'S, etc. It's unfortunate. This will be happening more and more with or without restrictive covenants.
  2. Joshua Drake
    It's worse than that. Safeway owns Albertsons, it also own Haggen's.
  3. Ossie Sharon
    Community members can also sidestep offending corporations and use discount online grocers who deliver for free or a nominal fee (e.g.,, even helping one-another with bulk online shopping (e.g. in Bellingham).
  4. John
  5. bonnie
    We haven't got a store in our neighborhood either we have to go to Walmart Supermart or we have to go to the other one about 2 miles from us so we need one here Meadowbrook and 820

More from



A farmworker feeds cows in a barn.

Senator Cory Booker Says FDA Proposal Could Worsen Antibiotic Resistance

A Field Report exclusive: The New Jersey senator sends a letter to the agency, asking it to enforce limits on farm use of antibiotics. Plus: FDA bans brominated vegetable oil and OSHA introduces heat protections.


Can Seaweed Save American Shellfish?

Donna Collins-Smith hauls out kelp lines for the Shinnecock Kelp Farmers on Shinnecock Bay. (Photo credit: Rebecca Phoenix)

The Promise and Possible Pitfalls of American Kelp Farming

an illustration by nhatt nichols showing a hand pulling a kelp line out of the sea

A US Court Found Chiquita Guilty of Murder in Colombia. What Does the Ruling Mean for Other U.S. Food Corporations Abroad?

Workers unload green bananas for washing at the Santa Cruz banana plantation in Ciudad Hidalgo, Chiapas, Mexico. The fruit from the plantation in the Mexican state of Chiapas is harvested year round and shipped to clients in Mexico and the United States, incluiding Chiquita, the leading American banana distributor. (Photo credit: John Moore/Getty Images)

Our Summer 2024 Food and Farming Book Guide

a collage of notable summer books on food and farming