The Woman Who Helped the Military Cut Down on Meat | Civil Eats

The Woman Who Helped the Military Cut Down on Meat

Kristie Middleton is helping America eat less meat, one small step at a time.

kristi middleton meatless monday book cover

When she first started canvassing the country seven years ago, urging school districts, military bases and other big buyers to buy and serve less meat, Kristie Middleton got used to people rolling their eyes at her. Years before the federal government and physicians began suggesting that we do just that, the idea of eating fewer (or smaller) burgers was unpopular. In some places it was even considered un-American.

But the less-is-more mantra has slowly become a winning slogan for the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), where Middleton is the senior director of food policy. Making #MeatlessMonday into both a health trend and an environmental initiative was only a part of the organization’s efforts to change minds—and corporate practices—across America.

During her tenure, Middleton has helped convince 200 school districts, including those in red meat capitals of the country like Kansas City, as well as the U.S. Army, Air Force, and Coast Guard to serve tens of millions of plant-based meals. In a political climate where such changes are more likely to come from individuals than international agreements, Middleton’s work to continue spreading the meatless message is as instructive as it is inspirational.

Middleton, 39, lives in Oakland, California, and began eschewing eggs, and later meat, from a young age because of her concern for animals. Her book touches on her personal convictions but encourages readers to consider the other reasons for making plants rather than animals the center of meals, including health and environmental concerns.

Civil Eats talked to Middleton about her work at HSUS, the time she spends with her parents’ chickens in Virginia, and her recent book, MeatLess: Transform the Way You Eat and Live—One Meal at a Time.

What have you learned trying to get institutions to serve less meat? What has helped sway them?

I would say there are a few main selling points: saving money is certainly compelling, along with increasing profitability. Being able to offer variety and to introduce new foods that are healthful is another.

The Menus of Change conference, a project of the Harvard School of Public Health and the Culinary Institute of America, is devoted to encouraging restaurateurs, chefs, and others in the food industry to serve more healthful and sustainable menus. Many of their recommendations center on plant-forward menus, moving meat to the side and vegetables to the center and so on. It’s becoming much more imperative for the food industry either to respond to the growing demand or to be more socially responsible corporate citizens.

We’re seeing things happen at the institutional level that, had you told me even a few years ago were going to happen, I would not have believed it.

Kansas City Public Schools are doing Meatless Monday. And we’ve worked with over 200 school districts—including the L.A. Unified School District, the nation’s second largest, serving 700,000 meals every day. Their former director, with whom I worked, said if they can do it there, we can do it anywhere.

At Detroit Public Schools, they discovered that they could save money with a meatless day and started doing two of them a week. I’ve also worked with Dallas and Fort Worth school districts in Texas, so it’s not just happening on the coasts but in places at the center of the country.

How has the Humane Society been involved in spreading the Meatless Monday trend?

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Our main tenet has been to find ways to reduce the suffering of animals who are in the worst conditions. We realized that there’s simply no way to get to what we’re working toward without reducing the overall amount of meat consumed. We’re eating over 100 pounds of meat per person (per year) in the United States—and that’s not sustainable for our planet, it’s not good for our heath and it’s causing tremendous animal suffering.

Meatless Monday was started by the U.S. government during World War I as a resource-saving effort and brought back during World War II. In 2003, the Monday Campaigns teamed up with Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to rebrand it as a public health and sustainability initiative. It was getting attention from bloggers and thought leaders and a couple of school districts—so we approached more of our institutional partners about incorporating it.

How does your book help individuals scale up the concept of plant-based meals beyond a once-a-week habit?

Around 3.4 percent of the American population is vegetarian, and that’s self-reported. That represents such a small proportion of the people who are out there, but there are estimates that 47 percent of the U.S. population is eating meat-free once a week.

I wanted to provide a resource for people who want to do something but are not sure how to take the next step. I try to encourage those who may be brand new to the concept to try Meatless Monday, if they’re already doing those, to take it up to a meatless Monday-through-Friday or Vegan Before 6, like Mark Bittman suggests. It’s really about meeting people where they’re at and giving them the resources and support to get to the next level.

You start the book talking about the treatment of egg-laying chickens, which feels unexpected. When most people consider laying off the meat, they leave eggs on the table. Was this intentional?

Egg-laying hens endure so much suffering because of the intensive confinement [on many egg farms]. I also now have a more personal relationship with chickens. In addition to those who live with my family (in Suffolk, Virginia), I also have a neighbor who has two chickens. I’ve come to know them as individuals who have these huge personalities.

What are some of the obstacles to meatless eating?

One of them is your community. People eat like their friends and family, and they go back to eating meat because they don’t have any support. There are some people who are able to go it alone and others who find it very difficult. One of the recommendations I make is to try to get your friends and family to join you in some way. Another obstacle is perception. I think that people don’t really have any idea about nutrition. They don’t know what to eat. [In the book], I try to dispel common myths and share some of the most important things with respect to nutrition.

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You’re a vegan. Why encourage your readers to eat less meat instead of giving it up entirely?

In doing this work with institutions, I find so many people who are open to this concept of one small step—which we know, collectively, can add up to make a huge difference. But if I were to go in and ask them to switch their menu to vegan, I’m sure many of them would say it’s just not practical.

Personally, I didn’t do it all at once. When I was a little girl, I stopped eating eggs and, many years later, I became vegetarian. Then, a year and a half later, I became vegan. I think a lot of advocates have this all-or-nothing mentality when they have a lightbulb moment, but I haven’t met a lot of people who have gone fully vegan overnight.

It’s far more sustainable and realistic for people to make gradual changes. Every meat-free meal is going to have a positive impact on the planet and on animals.

This interview has been edited for length and clarity.

Kristi Middleton photo credit: Michelle Cehn.

Whitney Pipkin is a freelance journalist writing about food, agriculture and the environment from the Washington, D.C., area. She has written for The Washington Post,, NPR and Smithsonian Magazine, among others. She also is a staff writer for the Chesapeake Bay Journal and, covering these topics as they relate to the country's largest estuary. She blogs about food at Read more >

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  1. On the behalf of animals everywhere, thank you for working tirelessly, Kristie!
  2. Melissa Tregilgas
    This is actually quite tragic. We know that vegetable and grain growing, while necessary, end up killing more animals in the field than the humane slaughter of livestock does. Baby birds, snakes, field mice, gophers, moles, ground squirrels, baby deer, fox kits, frogs, coyote pups. If it lives in a den and or on the ground and isn't fast enough, it gets ground into the earth or shredded in cropping equipment. Not more humane--more cruel. I'm not saying we shouldn't grow veggies. I am saying that increasing the eating of them is not preventing any animal deaths--in fact it's causing more than an omnivorous or carnivorous diet would.

    In my pasture there are gophers, mice, frogs, kildeer nests, hares, turkeys and turkey nests, geese and goslings, deer and fawns, and all the attendant predators (bear and mountain lion pass through, coyote and bobcat hunt there nightly, birds of prey are always around). The cows and sheep that graze there do not necessitate the deaths of these wild animals, and the wildlife appreciates the presence of the larger herbivores because there managed grazing causes higher quality forage to grow on the pasture. If I were growing plant crops, all these creatures would not only not be welcome because they would damage our crop, and beyond that, the small ones would be killed wholesale during tillage or spraying.

    "Ever meat free meal" is not helping the planet, or saving animals. It is killing more small wildlife and reducing their habitat. It is no better than eating factory meat if you don't know how it was grown.

    There is a universe of difference between responsibly raised, pasture-based meat and factory farmed meats. How tragic that rather than supporting the one while cutting out the other, you are lumping them together and then pushing for more veggie/grain in the diet without any analysis of the animal suffering, potential habitat destruction and soil loss that are the result of increased row crop production.

    While the eating of grain fed chicken and pork has increased greatly since the last world war, the eating of grassfed beef and lamb has greatly decreased. People are actually getting much less protien and fat from animals then they once did in the US, and whatever you may feel about that, the data is in on it. Our health is falling apart on a high-grain, high-vegetable & fruit diet. Animal fat is the only normal fat out there. Squeezing oil out of trees and grains is a modern and abnormal practice, and study after study as linked plant based oils to increased inflammation and higher risk of mental health issues, among other problems. We are killing ourselves, killing wildlife, and destroying our soils in the name of a blind and religious morality that says it is unacceptable to eat animals, but acceptable to mow them down with tractors in the name of holiness and purity. I don't buy it.
    • Monica Martin
      Totally agree. And so many don't seem to realize that living every plant relies on the death of an animal - plus animal products like blood and bone are added to vegetable growing system. I would advise the writer of this article to read Lierre Keith 'The Vegetarian Myth' - So many major health issues that could be prevented
      by using common sense.
  3. Monica Martin
    So sad - unfortunately you are showing little understanding of human nutritional requirements or the necessity of well managed ruminant animal grazing to ensure the health of the planet. Reading Allan Savory on holistic management and Tim Noakes on human nutritional science will help you gain a better understanding. There are, or never have been any vegan cultures - there is a reason for this - reproduction depends on eating animal products. It is extremely important that you do not encourage others in following dangerous vegan ideologies. Please show compassion for the planet and other humans.
  4. Kim Waterfield
    Just came across this article, it is great, thank you Kristie!! Baby steps for the general population.
    And, in response to Melissa, I think you need to do A LOT more research.
    Your angle that growing grains and vegetables ends up killing more animal life is absurd. What do you think the farmed animals eat? We have to grow crops for the animals, that we are going to eat and kill. So the land is used to grow crops for human consumption or animal consumption. "Humanly raised" animals is also a myth that makes meat eaters feel warm and fuzzy. Those animals still end up at the same slaughter house, dying in fear, and pain.
    Monica, you also are showing your lack of research, or at least your narrow path, research. There is overwhelming evidence that a plant based diet is not only healthier, but, better for the planet.
    Omnivores, please do your research. I know this is a scary thing, cutting down, or cutting out meat, but, the evidence speaks for itself.
  5. Rachel Mason
    Yes, pastured meat and factory farmed meat are not at all the same, and I agree that we - including Melissa and Monica - should be clearer about the distinction. But given that the vast majority of animal products in the US are factory farmed, eating less of them effectively means eating less factory farmed stuff. And as Kim points out, those animals are eating the grains that Melissa finds so cruel. Eating products from grass-fed animals probably also involves a lot of inadvertent death, too, given that even pastured cows in northern climates are fed hay in the winter. I doubt that making hay is particularly kind to whatever wildlife lives in the grass.

    For me it's not so much about the number of animal deaths as (1) their quality of life and (2) the use of resources such as land, water, fossil fuels and antibiotics. I have no desire to eat meat myself, and haven't needed it to get through 2 marathons, numerous triathlons, and a PhD. I don't think everyone needs to stop eating meat, but until we can produce 100 lb/year of humanely, sustainably raised meat for over 300 million people (to use the figures for the US alone), then getting people to cut down is absolutely the right thing to do. So thank you, Kristie.
  6. Rachel Mason
    Oh and by the way:

    "Our health is falling apart on a high-grain, high-vegetable & fruit diet."

    People are eating too many fruits and vegetables? Are we talking about people on the same planet?

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