Is Monsanto’s GMO Sweet Corn a Flop in the U.S.? | Civil Eats

Is Monsanto’s GMO Sweet Corn a Flop in the U.S.?

As we were roasting sweet corn on our barbecue grills last summer, we wanted to know: Was this the same corn on the cob we’ve been eating all our lives or was it a new type of corn genetically engineered by Monsanto to contain an insecticide and resist weed killing chemicals?

Until now, Monsanto’s genetically modified organisms (GMO) have been commodity crops for processed food and animal feed. Very few GMO “whole” foods are on store shelves–just papaya from Hawaii and a little bit of squash. While Syngenta has offered GMO sweet corn for about a decade, most farmers have opted not to grow it.

But the DNA of sweet corn may be changing. In 2011, Monsanto began selling seeds for its first consumer-oriented vegetable product, a “stacked trait” sweet corn genetically engineered with three Bt-toxin genes that make the corn itself an insecticide, plus a “Roundup Ready” gene that enables the corn to withstand Monsanto’s herbicide glyphosate. Yum.

Monsanto called the new GMO corn Seminis® Performance Series™ and it comes in three varieties: Passion II, Obsession II, and Temptation II. (See for yourself in this marketing brochure. You couldn’t make this stuff up.)

We wanted to know: How far had Monsanto’s new GMO sweet corn penetrated the market by the 2013 corn-eating season? There was only one way to try to figure it out.

Up to Our Ears in Sweet Corn 

Between June and September of 2013, Friends of the Earth worked with volunteers to gather 71 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned non-organic sweet corn from eight regions across the country: Washington State, California, Oregon, Illinois, Vermont, Massachusetts, Colorado, and Washington, D.C.

We tested the corn using a highly sensitive strip-testing method designed to detect the presence of the Cry1Ab proteins expressed in genetically modified corn plant tissue, both the Monsanto and Syngenta varieties. We sent the positive samples to an accredited independent lab to confirm the corn as genetically engineered.

The results indicate: Most Americans probably didn’t eat unlabeled GMO sweet corn this summer, but some definitely did.  (See Friends of the Earth analysis here.)

Just 2.4 percent of the corn we tested–two samples out of 71–tested positive as genetically engineered.  Both were fresh corn on the cob products, which the lab confirmed to be Monsanto Seminis® Performance Series™ sweet corn.

So Where’s the GMO Corn? 

If you bought sweet corn at Stop & Shop in Everett, Massachusetts, during the first week of August, or at City Market in Breckenridge, Colorado, in the third week of July, you bought Monsanto’s stacked-trait GMO sweet corn–without knowing it, since it’s not labeled as genetically engineered.

The Everett Stop & Shop corn was grown in Ontario, Canada. The Breckenridge City Market corn was of unknown origin but labeled “King Soopers Yellow Corn, three count, store code 430, bar code 204426001997.”

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It’s worth noting where we didn’t find GMO sweet corn. We didn’t find it at Stop & Shop in Medford, Mass., less than a mile away from the Everett Stop & Shop where we did find it. The Medford corn was grown in western Massachusetts (not Canada).

We didn’t find GMO corn at Walmart stores in Denver and Seattle, even though Walmart has said it will carry it (three more Walmart stores we checked had no corn at all). We didn’t find GMO corn among the 25 samples we tested from eastern and western Washington State (a top sweet-corn state), despite rumors of farmers there growing it.

It’s possible we would have found GMO sweet corn at other Walmart stores, at other retailers, or in other states where we didn’t buy corn. This analysis is not definitive; it’s just a snapshot in time.

But a picture is emerging from this and other recent data points. “Monsanto’s genetically engineered sweet corn appears to be a flop in the United States,” said Lisa Archer, Food and Technology Program director at Friends of the Earth U.S. “Food companies here are starting to reject genetically engineered foods, and rightly so. They know their customers, particularly parents, are leery of unlabeled, poorly studied GMOs.”

While it may not be so popular in the U.S., there is one place you’d be more likely to find genetically engineered sweet corn on your dinner plate.

Is Monsanto Targeting the Canadian Market?

At the same time testing was underway in the U.S., and unbeknownst to the Friends of the Earth team, an environmental group in Canada was conducting a similar investigation to look for GMO sweet corn there.

Using the same strip-testing method to detect the proteins present in genetically engineered corn, the Canadian Biotechnology Action Network tested 43 fresh sweet corn ears purchased from a variety of venues in four Canadian provinces. Fifteen out of 43 (35 percent) tested positive as GMO.

The genetically engineered corn came from Loblaw, a large Canadian grocery chain, and also from smaller venues–small grocers, farmers’ markets, and roadside stands.

“Our testing clearly shows that genetically engineered sweet corn is present across Canada, from all types of vendors,” said Lucy Sharratt, coordinator of the Canadian Biotechnology Action Network. “We were alarmed to find a significant amount of GM sweet corn in Canada, and shocked that Canada could actually be a source of genetically engineered sweet corn to U.S. consumers.”

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Focusing on the Canadian market may make sense for Monsanto, given that the U.S. market is showing increasing signs of skittishness about GMOs.

As a few recent examples: Dozens of leading grocery chains have pledged to not sell genetically engineered salmon if it comes to market; McDonald’s and Gerber have said they don’t plan to sell a GMO apple that is pending approval; Whole Foods Market will require all GMO-containing foods in its stores to be labeled by 2018. When the restaurant chain Chipotle announced plans to phase out of GMOs, its stock prices went soaring.

All this is the result of consumer-pressure campaigns that are largely absent thus far in Canada. But one thing the two countries have in common: They’re two of the only places in the industrialized world where shoppers have to use lab equipment to find out if their sweet corn genetically engineered.

Friends of the Earth spent over $2,000 on laboratory analysis, testing kits, shipping, and packaging to find two positive samples of genetically engineered sweet corn in the U.S.

“Obviously it’s not possible for the average shopper to conduct such testing. Yet we have a right to know if the corn we’re feeding our kids has been genetically engineered to contain an insecticide,” said Lisa Archer. “Transparency is non-negotiable. We need labeling so we can track GMOs in our food supply, especially since new DNA-altered vegetable and meat products are in development and may be headed to our supermarkets soon.”

Photo: Shutterstock

Stacy Malkan is the author of “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” a co-founder of the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, and a leading communications strategist for campaigns to move the market to safer chemicals and healthy food. She worked with the Friends of the Earth Food & Technology Program on the sweet corn testing analysis. Read more >

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  1. Robert King
    Monsanto are also trying to get into the UK market, by targeting the big brand supermarkets like Sainsburys....... etc. I will not be happy if that happens, but to be honest I think it already has :-(.
  2. Ruth Blair
    If I can help it I will not eat GMO anything or sprayed anything. We have the right to know what is in our food and to choose what we will and will not eat.
  3. Thank you for checking for GM foods. We need the labeling and explanations for what exactly a GMO is. Most people don't realize they are eating poisons nor do they understand how this can effect their health.
  4. Chat
    I want the test strips if they aren't gonna label!
  5. robert blackburn
    We better wake up here in Canada too many people are getting sick. gmo,s suck gig time.
  6. Trisha Dev
    So what about corn fructose. We can avoid corn but it's in everything.
  7. Joan Hall
    Is there anything we can use to check what is in our food. I heard there was something we could use to check the bar code with that would tell us. Is this true and if so do you know what it is and where a person can get it?
  8. Oliver McCormack
    Lots of people here in Ireland are gone off wheat in the last few months saying it dosent agree with them (wierd stools) did the GE wheat rejected by markets recently get in here,,,,,,?.
    • Kyle Ness
      There is no G.E. Wheat grown.
  9. Ethel Beattie
    Is'nt there laws our government can put in place to stop this and also to have packages to label what we are eating???? It's disgusting what the average buyer has to do to get healthy food. Shame on Monsanto and for the deaths you are causing!!!!!!! Your day will come.
  10. ngaire
    Monsanto is a chemical giant..90% of grocery store items contain Round up..and GMO's..only eat grassfeed meat, organic everything, meaning vegies and dairy and fruit..nothing processed..let food be thy medicine..
  11. Nancy ethier
    I went to a beekeeping lecture recently. He said "if you like monarch butterflies take a good look. In 4 years you won't see anymore. They migrate through Texas which Monsanto has taken over all the corn crops. The butterflies eat the pollen and die. In 4 years they'll be gone. They went to the government and they said"tell the scientists" So maybe if we refuse to eat the corn we can save our butterflies?
    • Kyle Ness
      I research them, it is NOT the pollen. It all has to do with the soybean aphid outbreaks, their timing as both the Monarchs and Soybean aphid work their way north very near the same timing, the aphids have to be controlled or crop is lost. Best way is to get a BT soybean on fast track that fully resists the aphids.
  12. p canzian
    i live in bc canada i certainlly want to know what the food i buy and pay for contains and for the record:i would never buy or consume some gmo product.
    thank you for the report
  13. Marylyn Nolan
    I avoided corn on the cob all summer fearing it may be GMO tainted. I am so disappointed in Canada!! In the past, I have chosen food imports from Canada over Mexico thinking Canadian food would be superior. I no longer will do so. Keep up the good work.
  14. Frank
    You seem to be implying that Passion, Obsession, and Temptation were recently named. I've been planting these varieties for over 10 yrs. The latest versions of these varieties only became available last year. They perform fantastically. There is little to no insect damage,with very litte spraying required. Best of all these genetic traits are safe. We are talking Bt and Roundup! Bt doesn't affect humans. Bt is approved for use on all organic farms. It doesn't even control all of the insect larvae. Roundup has been around for almost 30 years and is sold to homeowners in just about every store. You really need to talk to people outside of the organic community.
  15. Kenwood Maeker
    I have planted and harvested some of the best sweet corn that I have ever produced. It was a GM corn Monsanto produced.
    Reading the above information, what do I need to be concerned about by growing and eating this great sweet corn?
  16. nogmo
    It's not a pesticide or herbicide it is a deadly poison. Anyone manufacturing, distributing, transporting, or spraying it should be required to drink half their body weight in ounces of it daily for a year just to prove it's safety.

    In this modern day when deadly poisons are sold and sprayed all around us everything about food needs to transparent to the consumer. What variety the seed was, where it came from and how it came to be, the farm where it grew, what poisons were sprayed on it and the ground around it, when it was harvested, all the companies touched that touched it, etc.

    No gmo either; we shouldn't have to be chemists to buy groceries.
  17. Kyle Ness
    This past year I tested both Conventional Sweet corn and GMO sweet corn. The end result I came up with is that the GMO held on to it's flavor longer and had overall better taste than Bodacious, peaches&Cream and NK99.

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